Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the periodontal tissue that is characterized by alveolar bone resorption. This occurs due to an imbalance of osteoblast and osteoclast during the bone formation and resorption processes. In order to obtain complete regeneration of periodontal tissue, bone grafting is frequently used in periodontal surgical therapy. Type I collagen is widely used as a graft material for bone regeneration purposes.
Gourami fish scales are considered one of the sources of collagen that can be developed as a graft material for bone regeneration. This research aims to develop collagen derived from fish scales as a graft material for bone regeneration purposes. In this research, Wistar rats were given fish scale collagen for dental applications after their teeth were extracted. Observations were conducted for 7 days and 14 days after the application of fish scale collagen, which focuses on examining the expression of BMP4 and FGF2.
BMP4 stimulates bone formation indirectly by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. FGF2 is able to promote the establishment of cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. FGF2 continues to increase during the healing process. The result revealed that the expression of BMP4 and FGF2 during the observation at 7 days and 14 days showed a significant increase. This proves that the graft material applied to Wistar rats has the ability to stimulate osteoblast cells and inhibit osteoclast cells, which is essential for the bone regeneration process during flap surgery for bone regeneration in periodontitis cases.
Author: Prof. Dr. Chiquita Prahasanti S, drg., Sp.Perio.